Esophageal cancer is more common in men than in women. Cancer of esophagus starts from mucosa and grows outward. It can be two types – squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Cancer can occurs in every part of esophagus but in most people is in lower portion of the tube.
The most common symptoms in esophageal cancer include:
Long asymptomatic development of the disease
The typical symptom is dysphagia, initially expressed to solid foods, but progress to inability to accept and liquids
bad breath, belching
regurgitation of food and blood, heartburn
reduction of weight without trying.
- drinking alcohol, smoking, drinking very hot liquids
- bile reflux
- eating few fruits and vegetables
- gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- having precancerous changes in the cells of the esophagus (Barrett’s esophagus)
- undergoing radiation treatment to the chest or upper abdomen
- Endoscopy of the esophagus
- Endoscopic ultrasonography
- Positron Emission Tomography
The stages of esophageal cancer are:
- Stage I – occurs only in the superficial layers of cells (mucosa)
- Stage II – The cancer spread in deeper layers and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes
- Stage III – has spread to all layers of the wall of esophagus and in proximate tissues or lymph nodes
- Stage IV – cover other parts of body.
- Laparoscopic esophagectomy – the removal of the esophagus
- Conventional esophagectomy – the removal of the esophagus with abdominal approach
- Radiotherapy and chemotherapy – can lead to regression of the disease
Applied when the case is inoperable
Removal of the stenosis by laser therapy – laser endoscopic recanalization
PEG – tube (percutaneous endoscopic controlled gastrostomy)
Gastrostomy – for complete stenosis.